Rhabdodontids are a poorly known lineage of small- to medium-sized plant-eating dinosaurs found in Cretaceous rocks in Europe. In 2017, paleontologists Pascal Godefroit and colleagues announced the discovery of a new species of rhabdodontid, Matheronodon provincialis, from 75-million-year-old rocks in Bouches-du-Rhône, France.
Matheronodon is known from a single right maxilla, the tooth-bearing bone of the cheek region of the upper jaw, as well as a few isolated teeth from the lower jaw. Although incomplete, the material is unlike any other dinosaur so far known. Its smaller relative Zalmoxes has ten or eleven tooth positions in each maxilla, but Matheronodon has just eight. This is a record low number for rhabdodontids and especially notable for an animal of its size. Matheronodon is one of the largest known rhabdodontids, with an estimated length of more than 4.5 m (15 feet).
The tooth crowns are flat and narrow; shaped like chisel points. The surface of the teeth was decorated with numerous low ridges, giving it a corrugated appearance. The eight teeth in the upper jaw were tightly packed and each chisel-point tooth lined up forming a blade-like surface. The teeth in the lower jaw were similarly arranged, so when Matheronodon bit the two blades worked like scissors, slicing through tough plant material.